Maintenance Services Electrical - News & Information 

New approaches to solar energy 

Have you heard of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels? 
Products are now available that are designed to seamlessly integrate with the existing structure and design of a building. They are easy to install, making them ideal for your home, public buildings, offices and commercial properties. 

Integrated roofing 

PV panels compatible with traditional roofing tiles are available in colours and shapes that can suit many styles of building.  
Roof tiles that are also solar cells are now an option worth considering
They can be self-cleaning, fire resistant and can withstand hurricane force winds. Ventilation, heat dissipation and drainage options are also available. They can even be used for car ports, conservatories and garden rooms providing shade and energy at the same time. They can also be used with batteries for energy storage, EV chargers, and smart energy management systems as part of your renewable energy solution. 

Transparent solar panels 

PV glass panels can generate electricity from windows in offices, homes, a car’s sunroof, or even smartphones and tablet devices. PV slats in window blinds are another alternative to generate electricity. 
Researchers at Michigan State University (MSU) originally created the first fully transparent solar panel that could turn almost any glass sheet or window into a PV cell. It has now installed the technology on its own campus. 
While traditional solar panels absorb light to convert it into energy these new cells use a different technique. They use only part of the spectrum, which is invisible to our eyes, while allowing the normal visible light to pass through. They do this using a transparent luminescent solar concentrator (TLSC) made up of organic salts that absorb the invisible wavelengths which are then guided to the edge of the window where thin PV strips convert it into electricity with an efficiency of about 10%
As mass production and use of this technology is extended almost every window in a home or office could be a clear solar panel. 
Please get in touch if you would like to discuss energy saving options for your home, commercial or industrial property. 

Energy saving ideas 

Subsidised wall insulation might be a better use of taxpayers' money than heat pumps.
The energy price cap is now set at £3,549 for October and further increases are expected in January 2023. 
The government’s plan to promote increased use of renewable energy in our homes by subsidising heat pump installations is being questioned
The Boiler Upgrade Scheme (BUS) provides grants to encourage installation of low carbon heating systems such as heat pumps. The scheme covers some of the initial cost of installing low carbon heating and is open to domestic and small non-domestic properties in England and Wales. According to the latest figures almost 4,200 applications have been received and the majority of those already granted will replace gas and oil heating systems with air source heat pumps. 
Some organisations are arguing that the subsidy would be better used for other energy efficiency measures in the home that will reduce people’s bills. 
For example, figures from the Energy Savings Trust suggest that £10 million would pay for around 19,000 lofts to be insulated, saving residents £4.8 million a year on bills and reducing carbon emissions by 11,400 tonnes. Alternatively, using the same amount for cavity wall insulation, 8,400 homes would benefit, saving almost £2.4 million on annual bills and cutting carbon emissions by more than 5,600 tonnes. Simply replacing 100W incandescent light bulbs with energy efficient LEDs could save £13 per bulb per year. 
The Energy and Utilities Alliance estimates that the total £450million planned for the BUS to 2025 would subsidise 90,000 heat pumps. The same amount could provide insulation for one million homes or other energy saving measures. There are also concerns that expected reductions in heat pump costs compared to gas boilers won’t be realised and, in fact, they could cost more. 
Please get in touch if you would like to discuss energy efficient lighting and smart home options that could help you reduce your bills

Groundwork – electrical safety 

We recently took a trip into Central London to isolate power ready for soil test drilling works. 
It’s important to do this when you are carrying out work that involves digging or disturbing the ground. If you come across buried cables there’s a risk that someone could be injured or die due to electric shock, or electrical arcs that could lead to explosions and burns, even if protective clothing is worn. 
Power should be isolated before undertaking groundworks or drilling for soil samples

What you need to know 

Damage can be caused when a cable is: 
cut through by a sharp object such as the point of a tool 
crushed by a heavy object or powerful machine. 
Previously damaged cables might not have been reported or repaired and these can be a real danger. There are regulations about the steps you must take to use electricity safely at work. 
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance highlights how to manage the risks of digging near underground cables and the Electricity Networks Association (ENA) has published ‘Watch Out! Cables About’ with advice about the risks of underground electric cables. 

What you need to do 

Underground electrical cables aren’t always easy to see and many can look like pipes, so a visual inspection isn’t enough. Here are the steps you should take: 
Planning – although cables will normally belong to a Distribution Network Operator (DNO) some could belong to organisations such as the highways authority or Network Rail, for example. Your risk assessment should include how to work safely taking in to account local conditions. 
Before you start groundwork look for equipment nearby that might require electricity, find out who it belongs to, check whether there are underground cables and ask for plans of their location. You might need to ask the owners to visit the site to show you where the cables are. 
Suitable equipment should be used to detect any underground cables and you might need to make them ‘dead’ before you start work. Electricity companies must give their customers five days' notice if their supply is going to be disconnected. 
Cable plans – before you start work you will need to collect plans and details of all buried services in the area. If it’s an emergency you will need to work as if they are live. 
Utility companies might not all use the same symbols on electricity cable plans so it is important to check their meaning. High-voltage cables might be shown on separate plans from low-voltage cables. 
Cable locating devices – to be safe you should assume that plans only give an indication of location, so a competent person should trace cables using suitable equipment which should be used regularly while the work is taking place. Underground cables should be identified and clearly marked before any work begins. 
Safe digging – work should follow safe digging practices once cable positions and routes have been identified with trial holes and final cable exposure should be dug using suitable insulated hand tools as necessary. 
Please get in touch if you need advice or assistance about electrical safety when you are carrying out groundworks. 

Electrical troubleshooting – no need to be out of your depth 

Having a re4leialbe irrigation system in hot weather is essential so make electrical maintenance a priority
One emergency call recently was due to an irrigation system failure at Overstone Park Golf Course
In the recent hot weather that could have been a pretty serious problem. 
Thanks to our troubleshooting skills the issue was diagnosed and repaired with new parts in a couple of hours, so there was a tank full of water ready to use the next day. 

Troubleshooting – how it works 

As an electrician finding solutions to sudden and unexpected problems is a rewarding part of the job, but it isn’t always easy. 
Sometimes all our customers can tell us is that a unit is overheating, making an unusual noise, or has stopped working completely. The rest is down to us. 
It all starts with a process of troubleshooting to identify the exact electrical problem so that we can fix it. Here’s what we do. 
Gathering information – the first step is to find any technical documentation that’s available so we can understand how things are supposed to work. It’s always worth checking whether anything similar has happened before and to see maintenance records if they’re available. 
We can also research similar equipment to find any common problems and their causes which is especially helpful when we don’t have much technical data. 
This might lead us to carry out some tests which could narrow down the source of the problem, if not the actual cause. 
Understand the problem – it’s important to narrow down the possibilities one step at a time. Once we know which process has failed we can find out more about how it should operate, what could prevent it from working properly, and the possible causes. 
The MSE team van at a local golf club troubleshooting problems with their irrigation system.
There's plenty that can wrong with an irrigation system control unit
Diagnosis – once we know where to look, we can start checking individual components. We can look at input control signals and what should happen. We can check to see if things are performing within their expected limits. Of course, often it isn’t as simple as a single faulty component so we will also check for dependencies in the system. 
Specification – once we have isolated the source of the problem we can define what needs to be done and how to check that it will provide a solution. This might involve new parts and specific test equipment. 
Repair – the next step is to make the repair based on our troubleshooting so far. This might be as simple as some adjustments or it could involve replacement parts and resetting the system. It’s important to keep track of what we’re doing. In case our repairs don’t have the expected results we’ll know how to work back through the process. 
Test – to make sure that we have solved the original problem and haven’t caused a new one, part of the process must be reliable testing and verification of the whole system. 
Maintenance – once we understand the problem we can probably give some advice about how to prevent it happening again. It might be as simple as having replacement parts in stock or it could involve regular inspections, testing and maintenance. In some cases, it might highlight the need for a longer-term plan for replacement of the equipment. We’ll always be happy to give you our honest advice and recommendations. 
Please get in touch if you have an electrical problem or would like to discuss routine inspection and maintenance of key equipment. 

New regulations for smart home EV charging 

New regulations for EV charging
Electric vehicle (EV) sales in the UK are increasing quickly and are already ahead of targets set by the Climate Change Committee
It’s expected that there will be 400,000 new EVs in the UK by the end of 2022. 
Although it’s estimated that four out of 10 drivers don’t have access to dedicated off-street parking this still means the majority of new EV owners could charge them at home. 
If you’re thinking about installing an EV charger at home you’ll be pleased to know that from 30 June they should all meet new smart charge point regulations

What the new regulations mean 

One of the most important requirements in the new regulations is that EV charge points must be able to charge at specific times to access cheaper off-peak electricity tariffs. 
Government figures show the average cost of domestic electricity in 2021 was just over 28p per kWh (June 2022) but with rising energy prices this figure could double. The regulations are intended to make sure EVs can make the best use of energy including using cheaper off-peak energy between 10pm and 8am when there is often a surplus of renewable energy and lower prices. Using a standard 7kW home charge point for four off-peak hours could provide a range of 80 to 100 miles at a cost of around 2p per mile. 
Suggestions that new chargers won’t work at other times have been denied and you will continue to control how and when your EV charges with the ability to override smart charging if you wish. 

How smart charging works 

National Grid says there is enough energy capacity to meet the need to charge a growing number of EVs. However, smart charging will spread demand throughout the day and help to avoid the traditional evening peak of electricity demand between 6pm and 8pm. 
Your EV smart chargers will have a random delay function so that all EV charging doesn’t start at 10pm. They will smartly manage when to start charging during off-peak hours. Utility companies can extend the random start times from 10minute to 30minute intervals if energy use is exceptionally high on a particular day although the feature can be disabled if you need to start your charge immediately. 
You can find useful information about EV charging on the Energy Saving Trust website
Please get in touch if you would like a quotation to install an EV charging point at your property. 

Lighting for logistics 

The MSE team has secured the contract for a lighting installation project with a local logistics company. 
We will be completing a full sensor controlled LED refit for their newly-acquired warehouse in Northampton. This will allow them to maximise energy efficiency and it is estimated to give them a return on their investment in just 2.5 years. 
Also included is the installation of a new emergency lighting system suitable for their new racking layout. 
Lighting in logistics settings 
Busy working environments in logistics and distribution need plenty of lighting to provide a safe environment for warehouse employees, especially those operating machinery, and delivery drivers. Making sure it is easy to see a hazard means that it can be avoided. 
Warehouse emergency lighting
Poor lighting can lead to staff sickness, including eyestrain, migraines and headaches linked to ‘sick building syndrome’, which can also cause lethargy and poor concentration. 
Replacing lighting in logistics environments with LEDs will help you to meet the requirements of the government’s Lighting for Workplaces code of practice and you will avoid the problems that can be caused by fluorescent lighting. 

The benefits of LEDs 

Recent studies have indicated that bright, glare-free LED lighting improves staff concentration levels and can reduce sickness. 
It’s simple, cost-effective and sustainable. You can choose from a range of lighting options suitable for logistics environments including high bays, low bays, linear battens, cob lamps, and floodlights. Energy bills can be reduced by up to 75% and with almost no maintenance for up to 50,000 hours of problem-free use you can avoid downtime and minimise repairs. 

LED floodlights 

Outside spaces also need good illumination. Externally-mounted floodlights can improve visibility for visitors, staff members and delivery drivers with impressive illumination and controlled beam angles to minimise light pollution. They can be installed on roofs, walls or floors. 

Emergency lighting 

Emergency back-up lighting is essential in a logistics setting to make sure that tasks can be completed and equipment turned off safely, and that people can leave the building safely in the event of power loss or an emergency. 
You will want to install a system that’s suitable for your business and that can be regularly and effectively tested to make sure your storage areas can be continuously and properly lit and signposted to avoid unnecessary downtime. An energy efficient and robust LED emergency lighting system with automated testing can simplify the process and reduce the risk of human errors. 
Please get in touch if you would like to upgrade lighting in your logistics or distribution centre. 

New requirements for electrical installations 

Updated requirements for electrical installations have been issued which include information about connecting photovoltaic (PV) cells to the power supply.
Updates to the Requirements for Electrical Installations known as the Wiring Regulations have been issued and can be used immediately. 
The current version (BS 7671:2018+A1:2020) will be withdrawn on 27 September 2022. 
While both documents are still valid, electrical work, inspection and testing must meet the requirements of whichever version is used. They can’t be combined. 
The latest version applies to almost all types of installations including: 
similar electrical installations. 
It also applies to solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems and electric vehicle (EV) charging. 

What’s new in the Wiring Regulations? 

The updated version of the Wiring Regulations (BS 7671:2018+A2:2022) includes: 
RCD protectionresidual current device (RCD) protection will be needed for sockets up to 32A where most people are likely to use them (that’s BA1 - ordinary persons, BA2 - children and BA3 – people with disabilities) and for mobile equipment for use outdoors. A documented risk assessment from an electrician will be needed if this protection is not provided 
Residual Current Breakers with Overcurrent (RCBOs) will be needed for individual final circuits in residential properties. General or Type AC RCDs should only be used for fixed equipment where there are no DC components in the load current. 
Photovoltaic cells and generating sets – where solar photovoltaic (PV) cells and generating sets are connected in parallel via a low voltage (LV) assembly such as a consumer or distribution board the additional supply must be taken into account. The rated current of the assembly must include the generated current and be: 
• equal or higher than the rated current of the incoming circuit 
• equal or higher than the overcurrent protection that’s included in or upstream of the assembly. 
Transient overvoltages – although transient overvoltages or power surges are brief they can lead to high voltage peaks. The most common cause is lightning strikes that can damage cabling insulation and increase the risk of fire and electric shock. However, every day electrical and electronic equipment can be affected by hundreds of surges in the power supply network due to switching of inductive loads such as air-conditioning units, lift motors and transformers. A risk assessment must now be carried out to assess whether protection against transient overvoltages is needed to prevent harm to people, to warn them in the event of a hazard, or to prevent financial or data loss. 
Identification, labels and notices – safety information for users of the electrical installations has been updated to reflect current best practices. 
Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDDs) – some types of installations have been specified for protection with AFDDs to protect people, livestock and property against burning, overheating and fires caused by electrical equipment. This includes final circuits supplying socket outlets and equipment using fixed currents with ratings of less than 32A. 
Fire Safety – the fire safety design of buildings must be documented where there are, for example, protected escape routes and locations with risk of fire. This includes the resilience of cable supports and cable trunking during a fire. 
Prosumers Low Voltage Electrical Installations – the update includes a new chapter on prosumers electrical installations or PEIs. These are low-voltage electrical installations in private houses or workshops for example. They can include energy efficiency measures, an interface with the smart grid, an electrical energy management system (EEMS), renewable sources of electricity, and energy storage. PEIs allow users to take advantage of low demand to store the energy when its price may be lower. 
Please get in touch if you would like to know more about how these updates could affect your electrical installation and maintenance plans. 

Home EV chargers – what you need to know 

If you’re thinking about choosing a plug-in hybrid or all-electric car here are some things to think about when you’re considering charging at home. 
You will certainly have a convenient and cost-effective way to charge your car which will prove much cheaper than petrol or diesel, especially now we are facing much higher fuel prices. As more people buy electric cars off-road charging for an electric vehicle (EV) could also increase the value of your home

Why do I need an EV charger? 

If you used a regular three-pin wall socket with an Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) cable it could take more than 35 hours for a charge, depending on your car. There are also safety concerns, so you won’t want to run a wire across your drive or use a standard socket for charging in wet weather. 
A home EV charger can add value to your property

How do I choose a charger? 

You will need to decide on the cable, the power rating, and speed of charging to suit you. 
You can choose an untethered or tethered charger: 
Untethered – this means you don’t have an attached charging cable so you will need a separate one. However, this means you can change it if you need to. 
Tethered – your charging unit has a power lead attached which is convenient but you will need to know which type of connector you need for your EV. Type 2 connectors are the most common. Type 1 connectors are generally found on older cars. 
For most UK home charging requirements, the typical choice is a 7kW fast charger. You could choose a lower power rating such as 3.6kW to save costs, but it will take longer for your EV to charge. There are also faster chargers up to 22kW although few cars can accept this charge from a domestic alternating current (AC) source. Your car will probably have a maximum AC charging rate of 7kW to 11kW. 

Can I speed up charging? 

If your car can receive an AC charge of 11kW or 22kW you can charge your car more quickly but you will need a three-phase connection which your home probably won’t have. You’ll need to take the advice of a professional electrician if rapid home charging is a priority for you. 

Do I need a smart charger? 

Smart chargers can be accessed remotely via an app on your smartphone so you can monitor charging and choose when your car charges. If you have a time-of-use electricity tariff this could save you some money. 

Can I get a grant to instal an EV charger? 

You can’t apply for the Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme (EVHS) grant any more. It was replaced on 1 April 2022 by the EV charge point grant which is only available under certain conditions if you live in a flat or rental accommodation. You will need to use a supplier approved by the Office for Zero Emission Vehicles (OZEV)

What is vehicle to grid (V2G) technology? 

Ovo Energy is running a V2G trial that allows you to choose an EV charging schedule via an app on your phone. For example, if you get home at 6pm you can plug in your EV and confirm that it must be at least 80% full by 7am. Your car will be charged when demand on the network is low, and when renewable energy is likely to be used. When demand is high the charger can take power from your car to power your home or sell any excess energy back to the grid. Your app will tell you how much money you’ve made or saved by doing this. 
Please get in touch if you are considering EV home charging. 
Building sites can be risky places for electrical cable damage incidents.

Prioritising electrical safety in the building sector 

People working in construction have been involved in the highest number of cable damage incidents in London, the South East and East of England during the past year. 
Prioritising electrical safety in the sector could significantly reduce the risks of injury and save the time and cost of delays when electrical cabling and equipment is damaged. 
In 2021 builders were involved in 23% of incidents where members of the public came into contact with electricity cables, which is more than any other trade. Planning for ground work should include obtaining cable plans in advance and, wherever possible, avoiding working close to live cables. 
This applies not only to large construction companies but also to private builders undertaking small house builds or extension work, laying driveways or digging excavations for foundations, for example. 
The use of diggers, lifting equipment, ladders, pneumatic drills and hand power tools or even simple spades can all be cause for concern as contact with electricity can lead to serious burns or be fatal. The risks include overhead lines and electricity substations as well as underground cables. 
Electricity network companies can provide advice about safe working in advance and regularly liaise with professional and industry groups to improve electrical safety. 
The Federation of Master Builders emphasises that building sites are generally dangerous so health and safety procedures must be properly followed. 
Key advice for builders includes: 
asking for advice from network providers about issues such as disconnecting power supplies and shrouding overhead lines 
assuming all cables are live and allowing time to obtain plans which might be for overhead or underground cables 
marking underground cables clearly and confirming locations with a Cable Avoidance Tool (CAT) before excavating and digging trial holes if necessary 
making sure everyone on site is aware of cable plans before starting work 
always looking up to check overhead lines and working away from them when handling long items such as scaffold poles, or when using lifting and digging equipment 
checking where service cables enter buildings 
always confirming that the power supply is disconnected before starting any demolition work. 
Please get in touch if you are planning electrical work as part of your building project. 

Gardeners – be aware of electricity outdoors 

As the weather improves, keen gardeners will be digging, planting and remodelling. 
It’s important to be aware of the possibility that there are buried electrical cables and to use electrical equipment safely outdoors. 
Contact with high voltage underground electricity cables can be fatal. Everyone is encouraged to simply think about the risk of a potential electric shock before breaking the ground. 
Gardeners need to be aware or buried electrical cable when digging and to use electrical equipment safely outdoors
The top tips for gardeners include: 
checking the location of underground electricity cables at Linesearch and requesting details before you start work as well as using a Cable Avoidance Tool (CAT) for larger projects 
assuming any cables identified are live and hand digging trial holes to check their depth when deeper holes and excavations are needed to plant trees or instal fence posts for example 
always fitting plugs with a residual current device (RCD) when using electrical equipment outdoors to automatically switch off power if there’s a fault 
look up before you use a ladder outdoors to check for overhead power cables because contact could cause serious injury or even death. 
Other things to think about include avoiding use of electrical equipment in your garden near water, when it’s raining, or when there’s dew on plants and lawns. Trailing cables aren’t only a tripping hazard, you also need to be careful that you don’t run over and cut them when mowing or cut through them with a spade. Also, make sure you don’t overload your plug sockets with too many pieces of equipment. 
Please get in touch if you would like to instal outdoor plug sockets or are considering lighting or water features for your garden this summer. 

Be seen, be safe 

Transit areas and car parks need the good lighting provided by these 6metre stanchions and LED floodlights
The MSE team likes a challenge. For one of our clients the lack of lighting on this service road was a health and safety concern. 
Trailers often parked next to the building so floodlighting mounted directly to the side wall would be blocked. 
Our solution was to instal 10 6-metre stanchions with LED floodlight units to project the light over the trailers and cover the road. These provided a perfect spread of light along the service road and staff members were impressed by how much the area and the car park opposite have been improved. 

Getting your lighting right 

Transit areas and car parks need good lighting to allow pedestrians and vehicles to move around safely. European lighting standards for indoor and outdoor workplaces (EN 12464-1 and EN 12464-2) are helpful. 
Your lighting design needs to allow for all sizes of transport from forklift trucks and motorcycles to articulated lorries and trailers. Good lighting also helps people to feel safe at night when they are moving around these areas. 
Requirements can vary, depending on the type of space. For example, light surfaces in an indoor car park can help create a reassuring level of light compared to an outdoor car park where brighter lighting might be needed. 
Positioning is also important to highlight access ramps and structural features such as columns and beams. Where lighting columns are needed they must be carefully positioned to reduce the risk of a collision. 
Entrances, exits, and pay points for indoor car parks need to be well lit to keep pedestrians safe as well as places where vehicles will be stationary at exit barriers or when waiting to join the traffic on a busy road, for example. 

Best practices 

The requirements for lighting columns can vary and a larger number of lower power lights might be needed in areas used by larger vehicles such as buses or lorries to reduce shadows. 
Lighting can be used to highlight entrance and exit points and boundaries and special attention might be needed in areas allocated to family or disabled parking where users might be unpredictable or less mobile. 
In indoor spaces wall-mounted fixtures need to be positioned to make sure visibility isn’t affected by parked vehicles. Directing some lighting on to walls can increase its impact and add to the feeling of safety. Emergency lighting will also be needed in case there is a mains power failure. 
Photo cells and dimmers can be used to control lighting according to the levels of daylight and movement to help manage energy costs. Long-life efficient luminaires will also help to manage costs and maintenance requirements. 
In large outdoor areas it is important to control light levels to prevent light pollution. 
Please get in touch to discuss your commercial lighting requirements. 

Electrics explained 

The electrical world is full of letters and terms – here we explain some of them. 
If the term you’re looking for isn’t here, please get in touch and we will be happy to tell you about it and add a simple explanation to our list. 
AC - an abbreviation for alternating current. Electricity is all about electrons travelling through a conductor (like copper). When electrons alternately move in different directions it is an alternating current. AC current us used for homes and businesses. 
DC – an abbreviation for direct current where the electrons are all moving in the same direction. DC current is used to charge batteries, for electronic systems, some industrial processes and high voltage power transmission. 
Amp – the unit for measuring electrical current. 
BS7671 – the UK national safety standard for electrical installations, also known as the wiring regulations. 
Circuit – electricity needs to flow continuously, without any breaks, and this is called a circuit. 
Consumer unit – used to control electricity. The unit will often include a main switch, fuses, circuit breakers or residual current devices (RCDs). 
Current – the more electrons travelling through the conductor, the more power they deliver. Large electrical currents are dangerous. 
Earth – the earth wire will direct the electricity straight into the ground rather than passing through you. Earth wires are usually marked with yellow and green striped plastic covers. 
Fuse – a key part at the beginning of an electrical circuit to prevent too much electricity from passing through wiring. Often a circuit breaker will cut power when something is overloaded to prevent the cable and equipment overheating and becoming a fire hazard. 
Insulation – a coating, usually plastic, around conducting materials. 
IP rating – categorisation of safe lighting. For example, high IP ratings are for bathrooms or outside and lower IP ratings are for indoor lighting. 
Joule – the unit for measuring electrical energy. 
Live – a wire carrying electricity, commonly coated in brown plastic (note - older systems might include live wires covered with red plastic). You can receive an electrical shock from live wires. 
Neutral – a neutral wire completes an electrical circuit and allows electrons to flow. Neutral wires are usually covered in blue plastic (note - older systems might use a black plastic covering). 
Part P – a section of the Building Regulations for England and Wales about electrical installations in domestic properties. 
Transformer – used to change voltage, to dim lighting for example. 
Voltage – the unit for measuring the force of electricity moving through wires. High voltage locations are often marked as dangerous. 
Watt – a unit to measure electrical power. 
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